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Nepalese History and ethnic groups


Emergence of Nation

 The eastern Mongol tribes called Kiratis introduced Buddhism in the 7th or in 8th century. Hinduism flourished in the 3rd and 4th centuries, under Licchavis, Indo-Aryan peoples from northern India, and after the Hindus migrated from India during the Mughal period. Hindu kings Malla ruled in Kathmandu Valley between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, promoting tolerance of Buddhism and the Hindu Orthodox religion. Since its integration into the late eighteenth century and during the first century of Rana’s reign, the Hindu hill culture, Parbatia, has always existed with a dominant.

The birth of the nation refers to the conquest of Prithvi Narayan Shah by the kingdoms of the Kathmandu Valley in 1768. The reign of Shah and his followers formed twice as much territory as in modern-day Nepal. However, local conflicts with the Chinese in the late eighteenth century and with the British at the beginning of the nineteenth century pushed the boundaries back to their current configuration.

According to the Census taken in 2011, 81.3% of Nepal’s population is Hindu, 9.0% Buddhist, 4.4% Muslim, 3.0% Kiratist (indigenous), 1.4% Christian, 0.1% Sikh, 0.1% are Jain and 0.7% are religious or not religious. This differs from the census of 2001, where 80.62% of Nepali were Hindus, 10.74% Buddhists, 4.20% Muslims, 3.60% Kirant, 0.45%  Christians, and 0.4% were divided  to other groups like Bon( indigenous religion of Tibet). In 1971 Hindus made up 89.4% of the population, Buddhists 7.5%, and Kirants statistically 0%. However, the figures for religious groups are complicated by the discovery of the practices of the two religions, especially among Hindus and Buddhists.

National Identity.

Consolidating a geographically and culturally divided world, the Shah promoted advanced Hindu culture and language and established a hierarchy in which non-Hindus, as well as Hindus, were placed according to nationalistic principles. The laws of Caste were further clarified in the National Code of 1854.

By promoting high-level Hindu language and culture, the state has excluded non-Hindu groups and low-income groups. Anger in recent years has led to the formation of ethnic groups, the exploitation of minority rights, and talk of the formation of a separate Mongol monarchy. Now there are all religious and caste people involved in the political parties and government work.

Despite the turmoil of nationalism, the people of Nepal have a strong sense of nationality and pride. Hindu and Buddhist monasteries and majestic mountains attract visitors and visitors and give citizens a sense of world value. Other natural resources, such as rivers and flowers, and animals, are a source of national pride.

Ethnic relations.

 The population consists of many ethnic, cultural, and linguistic groups that are usually divided into three broad categories: Indo-Nepalese, Tibeto-Nepalese, and indigenous Nepalese. Indo-Nepalese people migrated from India through several hundreds of years; practice Hinduism, have Caucasian characteristics and speak Indo-Aryan languages. They are mainly located on the lower hills and river valleys and in Terai. Tibeto-Nepalese have distinct Mongolian features and speak Tibeto-Burmese languages; these groups live on high hills and mountains. The various groups in this category practice Buddhism, animism, or Hinduism. There are some scattered indigenous peoples in Nepal, whose origins probably preceded the arrival of Indo- and Tibeto-Nepalese peoples.

Hindu castes and Buddhists and ethnic groups who believe in history were relegated to a single hierarchy. At the top are high-class Hindus. Below them are drinkers (matwali), including Mongolian ethnic groups. Below are some untouchable Hindus who perform traditional rituals that are considered to defile the elite. Kathmandu District Newsars has a classification system that has entered the national administration category.

Historically, members of the upper class ruled most of the world and enjoyed great political and economic rights. Members of the lower class are excluded from political representation and economic opportunities. The untouchable castes were not allowed to own land, and their civil liberties were diminished by law. Caste discrimination is illegal but not over. In 1991, 80 percent of all civilian, military, and police positions were held by members of the highest levels.

Now the situation has changed and discrimination is not practiced in most urban areas. Still, this is not over but I believe this will end soon.

Also Read: The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal